BẢN TIN THỨ TƯ 21-9-2022
BẢN TIN THỨ TƯ 21-9-2022
Bản tin số 1
Researchers Unearth Genome of Wild Shrub from Tomato Family
Figure: A closer look at the flower and fruit of an Iochroma cyaneum shrub grown in southern Ecuador. Like its relative, the tomatillo, this shrub’s fruit has an enlarged husk growing around it. Researchers recently were able to create a full genetic sequence for the plant. Photo Source: Stacey Smith
Researchers led by Stacey Smith, a professor at the University of Colorado-Boulder have sequenced the genome of Iochroma cyaneum, a wild shrub in the tomatillo tribe of the tomato family.
After sequencing the Iochroma genome and assembling the sequences into chromosomes, Smith's team compared it to other members of the family. The broader tomato family has almost 3,000 species. Forty species have been domesticated, which include potatoes, eggplants, and hot peppers, in addition to tomatoes. All of these plants belong to the family and are also called “nightshades.” The genome revealed that Iochroma was part of the family known as the “berry clade,” a subgroup of “berries” which are juicy fruits with many seeds, like tomatoes and hot peppers.
The new genome provides a new look into the evolution of the family. One clue is how the genes have moved around as the species evolved. Iochroma offered up a surprise as its genome shuffling did not closely resemble any other sequenced genome, meaning the shrub has had its own unique evolutionary path.
For more details, read the article on the American Society of Agronomy website.
Bản tin số 2
US Launches National Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing Initiative
On September 12, 2022, the United States launched the National Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing Initiative which will harness the investments, program and partnerships to advance research and development in bioengineering and biomanufacturing, and expand and strengthen the country's biomanufacturing capacity and supply chains. The initiative was developed to reinforce biosecurity innovations, and expand workforce training and education programs in the US.
The key elements of the initiative include:
  • Strengthening supply chains and lowering market prices through bio-based production of active pharmaceutical ingredients, biomanufacturing facilities within the country, and biomining of rare earth elements
  • Expand domestic biomanufacturing capacity that depend on local feedstocks to create significant impact in US communities
  • Facilitate more sharing and data access to advance the development of biotechnology and the bioeconomy
  • Expand training and education in community colleges, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and other minority-serving institutions
  • Improve food security and enhance agricultural innovation which include new technologies that can address diseases, seed and fertilizer enhancement, and food security
  • Support healthcare by the creation of personalized medicines, less invasive tools for disease detection, efficient vaccine and therapeutic manufacturing, and more effective and safer therapies
  • Reduce climate change impact by replacing foreign petrochemicals with locally produced bio-based chemicals, cut greenhouse gas emissions by using biofuels, and develop soil microbes and crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
The initiative allows the US to reinvent the country's supply chains and shift away from using chemicals that rely on oil to move towards a cleaner, safer and more reliable alternatives that can be locally manufactured.
Read the Initiative and the press briefing released by the White House to learn more.

Genomic regions associated with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) under field conditions in soybean germplasm accessions from Japan, Indonesia and Vietnam

Theoretical and Applied Genetics September 2022; vol. 135:3073–3086
Key message
Eight soybean genomic regions, including six never before reported, were found to be associated with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in the southeastern USA.
Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is one of the most important foliar diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Although seven Rpp resistance gene loci have been reported, extensive pathotype variation in and among fungal populations increases the importance of identifying additional genes and loci associated with rust resistance. One hundred and ninety-one soybean plant introductions from Japan, Indonesia and Vietnam, and 65 plant introductions from other countries were screened for resistance to P. pachyrhizi under field conditions in the southeastern USA between 2008 and 2015. The results indicated that 84, 69, and 49% of the accessions from southern Japan, Vietnam or central Indonesia, respectively, had negative BLUP values, indicating less disease than the panel mean. A genome-wide association analysis using SoySNP50K Infinium BeadChip data identified eight genomic regions on seven chromosomes associated with SBR resistance, including previously unreported regions of Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 9, 13, and 15, in addition to the locations of the Rpp3 and Rpp6 loci. The six unreported genomic regions might contain novel Rpp loci. The identification of additional sources of rust resistance and associated genomic regions will further efforts to develop soybean cultivars with broad and durable resistance to soybean rust in the southern USA.
Fig. 3 Manhattan plot generated from a genome-wide association analysis of a panel of soybean accessions evaluated for their reactions to soybean rust in the southeastern USA. The X-axis shows the location of SNPs along each chromosome in the genome, and the Y-axis shows the − log10 of the p-values. The signifcance threshold was − log10(P)=4.84

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