BẢN TIN THỨ NĂM 15-9-2022
BẢN TIN THỨ NĂM 15-9-2022
Bản tin số 1
Field Study in China Supports Safety of Transgenic Maize on Non-Target Insects
A three-year study conducted in Yitong in the Jilin province of China provided more proof of how safe transgenic maize is to non-target insects, as it concluded that two transgenic maize varieties had no significant effect on the arthropod communities in the field.
The transgenic maize varieties DBN9868 and DBN9936 were planted in the field from June to September of each year from 2015 to 2017. DBN9868 variety expresses PAT and EPSPS genes while DBN9936 expresses Cry1Ab and EPSPS genes. Using direct observation and trapping, scientists recorded the different arthropod species that were present in the field. Analyses of the data found that:
  • The arthropod biodiversity difference between transgenic and non-transgenic maize is smaller compared to that of different conventional cultivars.
  • The difference in ground-dwelling arthropod communities was less obvious than those in plant-inhibiting arthropod communities.
  • Lepidoptera insects were not the dominant population in maize fields. Rather, dominant arthropod population varied greatly between years and months.
The results obtained were consistent with previous field studies on the abundance of arthropod species. The scientists concluded that compared with the significant, complex climate effects, the effects of the transgenic maize on arthropod communities in the field appear negligible.
Further details can be found in Plants.
Bản tin số 2
Whole Genome Sequencing Provides Astonishing Details About the Greenland Halibut
After conducting a whole-genome sequence on the Greenland Halibut, researchers expressed that the fish appear to be panmictic in most of the Northwest Atlantic. Moreover, their work enables further studies of genomic datasets to characterize the effects of climate change across different species.
The long-term presence of the Greenland Halibut in the Northwest Atlantic requires accurate information about its geographic population structure and local adaptation for scientists to understand more about the species. Using 1,297 Greenland Halibut samples from 32 locations in the said area, scientists were able to generate high-quality whole-genome sequencing data that provided an outlook of the fish's population difference among areas, environmental survival, phenotypic differences, and levels of migration.
In terms of population genetic structure, scientists found an absence of population differentiation between Canada and West Greenland, but significant genetic differentiation between the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the remainder of the Norwest Atlantic. Thus, the fish seem to appear panmictic, or randomly mates within a breeding population, throughout the region except for the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. On the other hand, environment association analyses show that divergence between two Greenland Halibut stocks results mainly from environmental variables like sea temperature and dissolved oxygen. Phenotypic differences between halibuts from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northwest Atlantic were also observed to have likely resulted from functional adaptive divergence to their environmental conditions. Lastly, assessment of the high levels of migration between the two stocks found that the Greenland Halibut may potentially escape unfavorable environmental conditions in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
The full study was published by Frontiers in Marine Science.
Bản tin khoa học
Silencing GmBIR1 in Soybean Results in Activated Defense Responses
Int J Mol Sci.; 2022 Jul 5;23(13):7450. doi: 10.3390/ijms23137450.
Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are a large group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play a critical role in recognizing pathogens, transducing defense signals, and mediating the activation of immune defense responses. Although extensively studied in the model plant Arabidopsis, studies of RLKs in crops, including soybean, are limited. When a BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR1) homolog (referred to as GmBIR1 hereafter) was silenced by the BPMV (Bean pod mottle virus)-induced gene silencing (BPMV-VIGS), it resulted in phenotypes that were reminiscent of constitutively activated defense responses, including a significantly stunted stature with observable cell death on the leaves of the silenced plants. In addition, both SA and H2O2 were over-accumulated in the leaves of the GmBIR1-silenced plants. Consistent with this autoimmune phenotype, GmBIR1-silenced plants exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to both Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Psg) and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), two different types of pathogens, compared to the vector control plants. Together, our results indicated that GmBIR1 is a negative regulator of immunity in soybean and the function of BIR1 homologs is conserved in different plant species.
Silencing GmBIR1 reduces the activation of GmMPK3/GmMPK6 in response to flg22 treatment. Leaf discs from indicated soybean plants were incubated on moist filter paper for 24 h to allow recovery from wounding before being treated with 10 μM flg22 or diluted DMSO. The kinase activities were detected by Western blotting using Phosph-p44/p42 MAP Erk1/2 antibody. Coomassie Blue–stained gel (CBS) used as loading controls. The experiment was repeated 3 times with similar results.

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