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Bản tin ngày thứ sáu 16-9-2022
Bản tin ngày thứ sáu 16-9-2022
Bản tin số 1
Cotton Gene Editing Project to Help Reduce Infestations and Pesticide Use
Figure: Texas cotton producers have benefitted from decades of public-private collaborations between Texas A&M AgriLife, USDA, and Cotton Incorporated. Photo Source: Texas A&M AgriLife photo by Laura McKenzie
The Department of Entomology at Texas A&M AgriLife, U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and Cotton Incorporated are working on a collaborative three-year project to research novel pest management tools for cotton production. Titled Modifying Terpene Biosynthesis in Cotton to Enhance Insect Resistance Using a Transgene-free CRISPR-Cas9 Approach, the project could provide positive cost-benefit results that ripple through the economy and environment.
The NIFA project led by Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist Greg Sword will focus on enhancing cotton plant resistance to insect pests. Their goal is to silence genes in cotton that produce monoterpenes, the chemicals that produce an odor pest insects home in on. By removing odors that pests associate with a good place to feed and reproduce, scientists believe they can reduce infestations, which will in turn reduce pesticide use and improve profitability.
For more details, read the article in AgriLife Today.
Bản tin số 2
CRISPR-Cas System with On-off Switch Cuts Proteins Instead of DNA
Figure: Cryo-electron microscopy image of the discovered CRISPR-Cas cutting protein. Photo Source: TU Delft
Researchers from Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) led by Stan Brouns have discovered a CRISPR-Cas system that cuts proteins instead of DNA. The discovery opens the door to the development of a range of biotechnological and medical applications, such as sensing RNA molecules in pathogens.
Brouns explains that when CRISPR-Cas was discovered, it was observed to cut viral DNA in precise locations. “But the protein had more surprises in store: we later discovered that some variants of CRISPR-Cas can also cut viral RNA. Now CRISPR-Cas goes one step further cutting proteins with high precision.” Proteins keep the bacterium alive. If important proteins are destroyed when the CRISPR-Cas system cuts them, this can cause the bacterium to go dormant, and unnecessary dormancy can be harmful.
Ph.D. student Sam van Beljouw, lead author of the article published in Science said they have now discovered that the cutting protein is only activated if it recognizes the RNA of the virus. "Bacteria therefore only activate the immune system if the virus is present in the cell. We are now trying to find out exactly how the cut proteins cause dormancy.”
For more details, read the article on the TU Delft website.
Bản tin khoa học
Balardin RR, Bellé C, Piovesan BC, Nora DD, Ramos RF, Lopes AN, Santos PSD, Antoniolli ZI.
An Acad Bras Cienc.;2022 Jun 3;94(2):e20191427. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765202220191427
Figure: Meloidogyne javanicain soybean genotypes
Abstract
Meloidogyne javanica is among the most important nematodes that damage soybean, and although genetic resistance is the ideal control measure, there are few cultivars described as resistant among those recommended for southern Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the reaction of soybean cultivars to M. javanica. The inoculum of nematodes (Est. J3) was obtained from soybean plants and inoculated into tomato plants cultivar "Santa Cruz". Thirty-seven soybean cultivars widely used in the South, Southeast and Midwest of Brazil were used in the experiment. For each plant a suspension of 5,000 eggs + juveniles of second stage of M. javanica was inoculated into a sterile soil hole in 2-liter pots with six replications. The evaluation of root weight, number of galls, number of nematodes was 60 days after M. javanica inoculation. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and the averages of each treatment were compared to each other by the Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability. Even though M. javanica presented RF> 1.00 in all soybean genotypes tested, different levels of susceptibility were observed. Thus, the lowest reproduction of the root-knot nematode was observed in M ​​5947 IPRO, HO AMAMBAY IPRO, BMX GARRA IPRO and FPS ATALANTA.
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