Bản tin ngày thứ bảy 3-9-2022
Bản tin ngày thứ bảy 3-9-2022
Bản tin số 1
CRISPR-Based Test Enables Fast and Accurate Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Variants

Figure: SHINEv.2 is a CRISPR-based diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants that can be performed with only five simple steps. Depicted is a version of SHINE v2 that reads out its results via a method similar to other viral home tests. Illustration from Princeton University
Researchers from Princeton University and the Broad Institute have created an easy-to-use diagnostic COVID-19 test that is more sensitive than the commonly used at-home antigen tests and allows for the rapid and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in point-of-care settings.
The improved COVID-19 test detects the virus using a different mechanism than the more familiar clinic-based PCR or at-home antigen tests. Instead, the test detects viruses using CRISPR gene editing technology. CRISPR originated from a bacteria-based system to detect and defend against viral infections and is uniquely suited to rapidly identifying specific genetic sequences.
Cameron Myhrvold, an assistant professor in the Department of Molecular Biology at Princeton, previously worked with Broad Institute member and Harvard University professor Pardis Sabeti to develop a CRISPR-based test that could be tailored to diagnose specific viral infections. Myhrvold's team called their test SHINE to detect SARS-CoV-2 with remarkable sensitivity. The improved test is called "SHINEv.2" and was able to quickly discern between infections from the Alpha, Beta, Delta, or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in patient samples. The team says the test can be rapidly modified to pick up on any other variants that may arise.
For more details, read the article on the Princeton University website.
Bản tin số 2
FDA Approves CRISPR-based Therapeutic for Trial
Cure Rare Disease, a Boston-based nonprofit organization developing genetic medicines, has received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to administer its CRISPR-based therapeutic that halts the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic disease caused by a mutation in the gene responsible for dystrophin production. It can affect all muscle types and leads to loss of mobility and eventually to respiratory and cardiac failure. The disease impacts 1 in 3,500 males and is extremely rare in females.
The drug, CRD-TMH-001, treats muscle promoter and exon 1 mutations on the dystrophin gene. With the FDA approval, dosing of the drug will take place at the University of Massachusetts Medical School very soon.
The therapeutic has been developed for one-time administration. It will be administered intravenously, and the patient will be under observation in the hospital for several days to ensure that there are no uncontrolled adverse reactions. As per FDA guidelines, the patient's progress will be tracked for 15 years.
Read more from Cure Rare Disease.
Melon shoot organization 1, encoding an AGRONAUTE7 protein, plays a crucial role in plant development
Theoretical and Applied Genetics August 2022; vol. 135: 2875–2890
Key message
A melon gene MSO1 located on chromosome 10 by map-based cloning strategy, which encodes an ARGONAUTE 7 protein, is responsible for the development of shoot organization.
Plant endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are involved in various plant developmental processes. In Arabidopsis, sRNAs combined with ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which functions in RNA silencing or biogenesis of trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs). However, their roles in melon (Cucumis melo L.) are still unclear. Here, the melon shoot organization 1 (mso1) mutant was identified and shown to exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes in leaf morphology and plant architecture. Positional cloning of MSO1 revealed that it encodes a homologue of Arabidopsis AGO7/ZIPPY, which is required for the production of ta-siRNAs. The AG-to-C mutation in the second exon of MSO1 caused a frameshift mutation and significantly reduced its expression. Ectopic expression of MSO1 rescued the Arabidopsis ago7 phenotype. RNA-seq analysis showed that several genes involved in transcriptional regulation and plant hormones were significantly altered in mso1 compared to WT. A total of 304 and 231 miRNAs were identified in mso1 and WT by sRNA sequencing, respectively, and among them, 42 known and ten novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. cme-miR390a significantly accumulated, and the expression levels of the two ta-siRNAs were almost completely abolished in mso1. Correspondingly, their targets, the ARF3 and ARF4 genes, showed dramatically upregulated expression, indicating that the miR390-TAS3-ARF pathway has conserved roles in melon. These findings will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms of MSO1 in plant development in melon.
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