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BẢN TIN NGÀY THỨ SÁU 7-1-2022
Bản tin ngày thứ SÁU 7-1-2022
 
Bản tin số 1

Voices, collaboration and complexity: Improving nutrition in the 21st century

CGIAR News; December 2021
 
 
At the United Nations Food System Summit this past September, nutrition was identified as a key action area deserving renewed focus as the world continues its pursuit of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. While Zero Hunger is still a primary objective, focusing on this end alone is not enough. Now, as the world prepares for the Nutrition for Growth Summit (N4G), convened by the Government of Japan from 7 to 8 December, this critical challenge for billions is the focus of intense discussion and commitment for action. 
“Globally, we have built food systems that are complex and interdependent, but not delivering sustainable nutritious diets for about three billion people,” said Juan Lucas Restrepo, the Global Director for Partnerships and Advocacy for CGIAR. “We have recognized that we need to do more than produce large quantities of food… the food must also be affordable, nutritious and safe.” 
Restrepo’s remarks provided introduction to a virtual side event hosted by CGIAR as part of N4G — a global effort to bring together country governments, donors, businesses and NGOs to confront the persistent challenge of malnutrition in all its forms, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.  
While the health effects of malnutrition, including undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight and obesity, are well-known, its complex relationship to incomes, employment, climate change and environmental degradation remain thornier subjects, requiring careful investigation and collaborative approaches to find viable science and policy solutions.  
Following a warm welcome from Aoyama Toyohisa, the Director-General for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council Secretariat of Japan, the assembled panel — representing a broad range of stakeholders, including research institutions, local organizations, government agencies and several INGOs — discussed the issue of nutrition along topics of sustainable and accessible diets; sustainable and affordable diets; and resilient and inclusive food systems. It explored these issues in the context of how malnutrition in all its forms impacts people in rural and urban areas, as well as those in fragile contexts, in different ways. 
 
 
Bản tin số 2

Call for Climate Protection for Smallholders that Produce One Third of Global Food

CGIAR News
 
UK boosts commitment to curtail agricultural emissions and reduce climate-induced loss and damage.
 
Glasgow, UK (November 8, 2021) – CGIAR urged global leaders today to ensure the 500 million smallholder farmers responsible for up to a third of global food production can adapt to climate change-induced loss and damage while curbing their greenhouse gas emissions. Innovations are needed that can both reduce the contribution of global agriculture to climate change, and adapt to its increasingly evident consequences while also supporting livelihoods, nutrition and equality.
Many smallholders reside in agriculture-dependent regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and face a rising tide of climate threats including increased drought, flooding and water scarcity. The climate crisis is exacerbating the degradation of food, land, and water systems, impacting productivity, viability and resilience.
The call comes as the United Kingdom pledged $55 million over two years to boost commitments to CGIAR research from a steadily growing global coalition to surpass $1 billion. The new pledges will contribute to an accelerating of research and innovation to confront rapidly intensifying climate challenges that could upend the global fight against hunger and poverty.
UK Environment Secretary George Eustice said: “To keep 1.5 degrees alive, we need action from every part of society, including an urgent transformation in the way we manage ecosystems and grow, produce and consume food on a global scale.”
“This is not an either/or scenario where it’s adaptation or mitigation,” said Claudia Sadoff, Managing Director, Research Delivery and Impact at CGIAR. “For agriculture to become a more sustainable and nature-positive sector, we have to provide tools that allow farmers to rebalance the relationship between agriculture and nature while building resilience to climate change.”
One example of work that CGIAR will undertake as part of new commitments is an initiative to develop climate-smart crop seed varieties, such as drought-tolerant wheat or rice that is adapted to grow in water affected by saline intrusion from rising sea levels. CGIAR will lead the ‘innovation sprint’ on Fast Tracking Climate Solutions from Global Germplasm Banks as part of the new United States and United Arab Emirates Agriculture Innovation Mission for Climate or AIM4C launched by President Biden at COP26.

Bản tin khoa học

 
Katherine L. Taylor, Kelly A. Hamby, Alexandra M. DeYonke, Fred Gould, and Megan L. Fritz
 
PNAS December 28, 2021 118 (52) e2020853118
 

Significance

Evolution of resistance to management approaches in agricultural landscapes is common and results in economic losses. Early detection of pest resistance prior to significant crop damage would benefit the agricultural community. It has been hypothesized that new genomic approaches could track molecular signals of emerging resistance and trigger efforts to preempt widespread damage. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying genomic changes in the pest Helicoverpa zea over a 15-y period concurrent with commercialization of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis–expressing crops and their subsequent loss of efficacy. Our results demonstrate the complex nature of evolution in agricultural ecosystems and provide insight into the potential and pitfalls of using genomic approaches for resistance monitoring.

Abstract

Replacing synthetic insecticides with transgenic crops for pest management has been economically and environmentally beneficial, but these benefits erode as pests evolve resistance. It has been proposed that novel genomic approaches could track molecular signals of emerging resistance to aid in resistance management. To test this, we quantified patterns of genomic change in Helicoverpa zea, a major lepidopteran pest and target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, between 2002 and 2017 as both Bt crop adoption and resistance increased in North America. Genomic scans of wild H. zea were paired with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses and showed the genomic architecture of field-evolved Cry1Ab resistance was polygenic, likely arising from standing genetic variation. Resistance to pyramided Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins was controlled by fewer loci. Of the 11 previously described Bt resistance genes, 9 showed no significant change over time or major effects on resistance. We were unable to rule out a contribution of aminopeptidases (apns), as a cluster of apn genes were found within a Cry-associated QTL. Molecular signals of emerging Bt resistance were detectable as early as 2012 in our samples, and we discuss the potential and pitfalls of whole-genome analysis for resistance monitoring based on our findings. This first study of Bt resistance evolution using whole-genome analysis of field-collected specimens demonstrates the need for a more holistic approach to examining rapid adaptation to novel selection pressures in agricultural ecosystems.
 
Figure 2: Genomic divergence in Cry-associated regions of the H. zea genome. SNP additive effect sizes, β (LMM), of the resistant parent allele are plotted for Cry1Ab (A) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (B). All SNPs in significant QTL windows are in color. Genome-wide divergence in field-collected H. zea from Louisiana (2002-2017) are in C. Alternating light and dark gray points represent pairwise FST values for 10-kb windows with a 1-kb step. Points above the red line underwent significant temporal genomic divergence. Points in color were also associated with increased growth on Cry1Ab (red), Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (blue), or both (purple) in our QTL analysis.
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