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Bản tin chủ nhật 19-9-2022
Bản tin chủ nhật 19-9-2022
Bản tin số 1
International Project to Explore Gene Editing to Manage Salmon Lice
The CrispResist Project is led by the Norwegian food research institute, Nofima, in partnership with researchers from Norway, the United Kingdom, the United StatesCanada, Sweden, and Australia. It aims to investigate the possibilities of using gene editing as a tool to manage the parasitic salmon louse without sacrificing the fish's health and welfare.
Salmon louse is a natural parasite and one of the biggest challenges in aquaculture. Previous research about how to control lice has been conducted, but no methods have been fully effective against it. Scientists are now examining other options to control the pest through the CrispResist project, and they are opting to use genome editing to improve and develop the Atlantic salmon's innate genetic resistance against salmon lice. Specifically, the project aims to identify parts of the Pacific salmon's genome that make it resistant to salmon lice, confirm if these genes can be edited to increase the lice-resistance of farmed salmon, and use these findings to potentially develop gene-edited eggs of the Atlantic salmon using CRISPR-Cas9. The scientists are careful to consider fish health and welfare as the driver of their research, and that farmed fish should not be able to cross-breed with wild fish.
Each project partner has a designated role in the CrispResist. Scientists from the University of Bergen are contributing their vast knowledge about salmon lice to the project, while those from the University of Melbourne are studying the ability of the louse to adapt to changes when introduced to the salmon. The University of Edinburgh is in charge of studying population dynamics of salmon lice to determine if reducing the numbers of lice in fish farming will have an effect on wild salmon. Other project partners are the University of Stirling, Rothamsted Research, University of Prince Edward Island, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Norway's Institute of Marine Research, Benchmark Genetics, SalMar ASA, and Mowi ASA.
More details can be found in Nofima's press release.
Bản tin số 2
Experts Redesign CRISPR to Engineer Massive Quantities of Cells
Nature Biotechnology reports a new version of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system that eases the process of re-engineering large amounts of cells for therapeutic applications. The technique, designed by Gladstone Institutes and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), allows scientists to introduce long DNA sequences to precise locations in the genomes of cells at significantly high efficiencies without the need for delivery systems.
"One of our goals for many years has been to put lengthy DNA instructions into a targeted site in the genome in a way that doesn't depend on viral vectors," said Dr. Alex Marson, Director of the Gladstone-UCSF Institute of Genomic Immunology and senior author of the new study. "This is a huge step toward the next generation of safe and effective cell therapies."
Aside from the description of the new technique, their paper also indicates how to generate CAR-T cells, which can help combat multiple myeloma and rewrite gene sequences where mutations can cause rare inherited immune diseases.
Read the original article from News-Medical.Net.
 
Bản tin khoa học
Metabolomic analysis of sheath blight disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) induced by Rhizoctonia solani phytotoxin
 J Appl Microbiol.; 2022 Aug 11. doi: 10.1111/jam.15776. Online ahead of print.
Figure 1: Rice shrath blight symptom.
Abstract
Aim: To understand the mechanism of necrosis incited by a host-selective phytotoxin designated as Rhizoctonia solani toxin (RST) identified to be a potential pathogenic factor of R. solani AG1 IA, causing sheath blight (ShB) of rice.
Methods and results: The metabolomic changes induced by the phytotoxic metabolite in a ShB susceptible rice cultivar were elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and compared with that of the pathogen to identify rice metabolites targeted by the phytotoxin. The profiles of about 29 metabolites with various physiological roles in rice plants have been identified worldwide. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate chemometrics (principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis) and cluster (Heat maps) analyses were used to compare the metabolites obtained from chemical profiles of the treatments with sterile distilled water (SDW) control. The results indicated that the rice plant expressed more metabolites in response to the pathogen than the phytotoxin and was lowest in SDW control. The key metabolites expressed in rice in response to the treatments were investigated by the variable importance in projection (VIP) analysis using p < 0.05 VIP >15. The analysis identified 7 and 11 upregulating metabolites in the phytotoxin and the pathogen treatments, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Among the phytotoxin-treated and the pathogen inoculated samples, the phytotoxin-treated sample recorded upregulation of six metabolites, whereas nine metabolites were upregulated in the pathogen-inoculated samples. These upregulating metabolites are speculated for the necrotic symptoms characteristic to both the phytotoxin and pathogen. In this analysis, hexadecanoic acid and dotriacontane were highly expressed metabolites specific to the phytotoxin and pathogen-treated samples, respectively. Besides upregulation, the metabolites also have a VIP score of >1.5 and hence fulfilled the criteria of classifying them as reliable potential biomarkers. In the pathway analysis, hexadecanoic acid and dotriacontane were identified to be involved in several important biosynthetic pathways of rice, such as the biosynthesis of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acids cutin, suberin and wax.
Conclusions: The study concludes that though certain metabolites induced by the phytotoxin in the susceptible variety during necrosis shares with that of the pathogen, the identification of metabolites specific to the phytotoxin in comparison to the pathogenic and SDW controls indicated that the phytotoxin modulates the host metabolism differently and hence can be a potential pathogenicity factor of the ShB fungus.
Significance and impact of the study: Due to lack of knowledge on the pathway genes of RST and in the absence of an ShB-resistant variety, understanding differentially expressed metabolic changes induced in the susceptible variety by the phytotoxin in comparison to that of the pathogenic and uninoculated controls enables us to identify the key metabolite changes during the ShB infection. Such metabolomic changes can further be used to infer gene functions for exploitation in ShB control.
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