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MONDAY′S NEWSLETTER 08-02-2021
22/02/2021 WORLD NEWS 23
 
 
No 1

ISAAA Report on Global Adoption of GM Crops in 2019 Now Available

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The full report on the global adoption of GM crops in 2019 authored by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications is now available.
According to Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2019 (ISAAA Brief No. 55), 190.4 million hectares of biotech crops were grown in 29 countries in 2019, contributing significantly to food security, sustainability, climate change mitigation, and upliftment in the lives of up to 17 million biotech farmers and their families worldwide. Double-digit growth rates in biotech crop areas were recorded in developing countries, particularly in Vietnam, the Philippines, and Colombia.
Planting area, biotech crop events, socio-economic benefits, and regulation highlights of the country adopters are detailed in the ISAAA report.
Get an electronic copy of the full report for only US$50. Report highlights in slides and infographics (report highlights and top 5 biotech crops) are also available for US$30 each.
 
 
 
No 2
 

TALEN Beats CRISPR-Cas9 in Editing Tightly-packed DNA

February 3, 2021
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Genome editing tool known as TALEN was found to be 5 times more efficient than CRISPR-Cas9 at locating and editing genes in the densely-packed DNA called heterochromatin. Thus, it has more potential to address genetic defects in the heterochromatin such as sickle cell anemia,beta-thalassemia, fragile X syndrome, and others.
According to the article published in Nature, the researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana−Champaign used single-molecule imaging to observe the performance of genome-editing proteins in mammalian cells. This led them to the finding that Cas9 is less efficient in heterochromatin than TALEN because Cas9 becomes overloaded by local searches on non-specific sites in these regions. Furthermore, when TALEN was used instead of Cas9, the editing efficiency increased five times.
The results confirmed that TALEN is more effective in targeting specific sites in heterochromatin. TALEN can be used to fight diseases, improve crop traits, among other applications.
Read more findings in Nature and Illinois News Bureau.
 
 
 
 
bản TIN khoa học
 

The effect of heat stress on sugar beet recombination

Theoretical and Applied Genetics January 2021, vol. 134: 81–93.

 

Abstract

Meiotic recombination plays a crucial role in plant breeding through the creation of new allelic combinations. Therefore, lack of recombination in some genomic regions constitutes a constraint for breeding programmes. In sugar beet, one of the major crops in Europe, recombination occurs mainly in the distal portions of the chromosomes, and so the development of simple approaches to change this pattern is of considerable interest for future breeding and genetics. In the present study, the effect of heat stress on recombination in sugar beet was studied by treating F1 plants at 28 °C/25 °C (day/night) and genotyping the progeny. F1 plants were reciprocally backcrossed allowing the study of male and female meiosis separately. Genotypic data indicated an overall increase in crossover frequency of approximately one extra crossover per meiosis, with an associated increase in pericentromeric recombination under heat treatment. Our data indicate that the changes were mainly induced by alterations in female meiosis only, showing that heterochiasmy in sugar beet is reduced under heat stress. Overall, despite the associated decrease in fertility, these data support the potential use of heat stress to foster recombination in sugar beet breeding programmes.
 
 figure1 
 
Figure: Diagrams summarizing the crosses involved in the temperature experiments to analyse female (FM), male (MM) and total meiosis (TM), respectively. The suffix in parenthesis indicates if the plant was male sterile (cms) or maintainer (maint), that is plant with a fertile cytoplasm but recessive alleles in the nucleus. The colour indicates where plants were grown, being black for control conditions and red for heat treatment. All the crosses produced six different populations; control female meiosis (CF), heat female meiosis (HF), control male meiosis (CM), heat male meiosis (HM), control total meiosis (CT) and heat total meiosis (HT)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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