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STABILITY IN SALT-AFFECTED RICE AREAS: AMAJOR MOVE TO RAISE LIVELIHOODSIN MEKONG DELTA (VIETNAM)
09/02/2018 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 217

 

STABILITY IN SALT-AFFECTED RICE AREAS: AMAJOR MOVE TO RAISE LIVELIHOODSIN  MEKONG DELTA (VIETNAM)

Professor Nguyen Thi Lang
High Agricultural Technology Research Institute for Mekong delta (HATRI)
 
Performance stability - the ability ofamaterial to be high-yielding with respect to a given environment or given condition - is one of the most important properties of a genotype to be released as a variety to ensure wide adoption. To guarantee this, researchers from the High Agricultural Technology Research Institute for Mekong delta, VietNam tested 10indica rice varieties at 6different locations during the wet season and 6sites with 10rice varieties during the dry season of 2017. Duration, grain yield (t ha-1) and stability index comprised the performance stability factors.
 
Table 1.The yield (ton/ha)  with 6 sites at Mekong delta at 2017
Lines
Bac Lieu
Kiên Giang
Ben Tre
Tra Vinh
CaMau
Can tho
HATRI 10
6.45
6.54
4.52
5.86
6.45
7.65
HATRI 9
6.67
6.38
4.34
6.09
6.59
7.69
HATRI31
6.84
7.02
5.15
6.25
6.84
8.04
HATRI32
6.61
6.58
5.14
6.21
6.79
7.59
HATRI5
7.38
7.35
6.18
7.18
7.77
8.39
HATRI62
7.21
7.29
5.44
6.51
7.71
8.30
TLG1
7.18
7.15
5.10
6.57
7.16
8.26
TLG2
7.26
7.30
5.54
6.62
7.20
8.31
OM5629
7.11
7.31
5.54
6.62
7.20
8.11
TLR801
7.51
7.51
5.73
6.79
7.38
7.38
mean
7.02
7.04
5.27
6.47
7.11
7.97
Ij
-1.09
-0.48
0.45
0.30
-0.26
1.01
 

Table 2: Satbility  some lines

Lines
Mean
bi
Stability
GXE(%)
HATRI 10
6.25
0.86
0.06
10
HATRI 9
6.29
1.35
0.64
84
HATRI31
6.69
1.34
0.12
53
HATRI32
6.49
1.31
0.1
54
HATRI5
7.38
0.88
0.03
21
HATRI62
7.08
0.89
0.06
17
TLG1
6.90
0.84
18.00
14
TLG2
7.04
0.99
0.00
0
OM5629
6.98
0.76
0.34
57
TLR801
7.05
0.77
0.16
25
GXE: Genetic X Enviroment; bi: Adaptive index
 
         As a support to CURE’s (From IRRI)  and MOST (Application of advanced technology, select rice varieties resistant to drought-adapted to salty conditions of cultivation of rice in salty areas in Mekong River Delta) technology development, validation, and testing of new varieties and management practices, the Vietnam-based project had the following accompanying activities: development of breeding materials through hybridization; selection of materials from pedigree nurseries; yield trials in various environmental conditions and different salinity levels; participatory variety selection; seed distribution; and establishment of training courses for capability building.
This is in response to some pressing problems that surround the Mekong delta regions, such as low and unstable crop yields; hunger, poverty and inappropriate exploitation of natural resources; and, degradation of soil and environment. In this particular research, genes were identified for different abiotic stress tolerances.
        Results showed that performance of the selected varieties is fairly stable in the salt-affected areas. The following crosses were selected and confirmed as true: BC2F2, BC2F3, BC2F4, and BC2F5.
New lines on salinity tolerance were selected. From 200crosses confirmed as true hybrid in dry and wet seasons, a total 25 populations consisted of 120progenies were selected based on tolerance to salinity and plant type from F6population; 400 progenies were selected from F3-F7; and some lines from BC2F5 populations were selected .
        The promising genotypes were selected with active participation of the end users (farmers) through participatory variety selection or PVS. Mother trials were conducted in various locations. Eleven most promising genotypes suitable for saline prone areas for ecosystem were evaluated in Batri, with farmers preferring HATRI5 (6.18t/ha yield). In Tran Van Thoi, eleven promising breeding lines for salt tolerance were selected, with farmers choosing HATRI5 and HATRI62 (with yields of 7.77t/ha and 7.71t/ha respectively); all genotypes showed good performance at vegetative stage. In Kien Giang, farmers chose TLR801 and HATRI5; while in Gia Rai, TLR801 and HATRI5 (which had 7.51t/ha and 7.38t/ha yield, respectively) were preferred by farmers.
         Salinity tolerance lines may be present in these varieties(expressed as an index of stability that cannot be identified in different environments). While there are many significant results for improving yield potential in the absence of information on the characteristics of salinity, breeding strategies based on selection under full waterconditions can be expected asmost effective.Genetic index for yield criteria is often higher under optimal growth conditions.
 
Out-scaling and up-scaling of innovation
         Elite salt tolerant breeding lines and varieties were released to seven (6) provinces. These are HATRI5 (1lines in Batri); HATRI5 and HATRI62 (2lines in Tran Van Thoi); TLR801 and HATRI5 (2 lines in Kien Giang); and, TLR801 and HATRI5 (2 lines in Gia Rai).
The multiplication and distribution of seeds are meant to reach farmers’ fields currently suffering from salt intolerance. As the fields suffer, farmers are likely to suffer losses in the future. The project thus aimed to (a) multiply large quantities of seeds of available varieties on the farm for immediate distribution; (b) distribute seeds to target areas; and (c) establish seed multiplication facilities in target areas for further multiplication.
 
Capability-building
         Training courses for farmers and technicians were conducted from julyto December  2017. There were 188farmers (156male and 32female) from the three provinces who participated.
The courses involved training in (a) identification and evaluation of salt  tolerance in breeding lines; (b) assessing their performance under salt stress and normal growing conditions; (c) conduct and evaluation of trials in farmers’ fields; and (d) communications - on how farmers can manage new varieties and seeds for succeeding generations.
 
Response plan
         This year, a response plan is developed based on current knowledge. This comprehensive management plan includes: (a) assessment and planning workshops to identify the areas most affected and likely to be affected by climate change; (b) assessment of the varietal characteristics to meet the needs of the farmers (because of different planting times and growing seasons across the target province); (c) meetings with scientists, extension workers, civil society organizations to plan on the distribution of seeds and other adaptation activities to assure farmer acceptance of seeds; d) determining the quantity of seeds required for distribution; e) development of a seed multiplication plan for different varieties; (f) identifying likely partners to participate in the finalization of seed development and distribution; and, g) identifying the training needs of these partners in terms of technology adaptation, evaluation, and dissemination.
         In sum, developing high yielding rice varieties tolerant to salt remains at the forefront of R&D activities at CURE  and National Rice(The Ministry of science and technology: Innovation Program)rice as it painstakingly exerts efforts at reducing risks and raising rice livelihoods of  Mekong farmers.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
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